(1986) CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Alabama Present Dixon et al. (1986) CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Connecticut Current CABI and EPPO (2015) -Georgia Present Dixon et al.

(1986) CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Kentucky Present, Couple occurrences CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -North Carolina Current CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Ohio Existing CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Tennessee Present CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020) -Virginia Current, Number of occurrences CABI and EPPO (2015) EPPO (2020)Risk of Introduction. Habitat Checklist. Top of web site Class Sub-Group Habitat Existence Standing Terrestrial. Hosts/Species Influenced. Host Plants and Other Vegetation Afflicted. Plant name Family Context Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) Fagaceae Major Castanea dentata (American chestnut) Fagaceae Key Castanea henryi Fagaceae Other Castanea mollissima (bushy chestnut) Fagaceae Primary Castanea sativa (chestnut) Fagaceae Key Castanea seguinii (seguin’s chestnut) Fagaceae Major. Symptoms. List of Signs/Indicators. Sign Everyday living Stages Sort Leaves / irregular varieties. Biology and Ecology. D. kuriphilus is a univoltine species, reproducing parthenogenetically. Early instar larvae overwinter inside chestnut buds.

At the time of bud burst in spring, the grownups arise to induce the development of 5-20 mm plant recognition application diameter environmentally friendly or rose-colored galls, which create in mid-April on new shoots. The larvae feed 20-30 days in just the galls prior to pupating. Depending on locality (altitude, publicity) and chestnut cultivar, pupation takes place from mid-Might right up until mid-July and older people emerge from galls from the conclusion of Could right up until the conclusion of July.

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They are all girls (males of this species have never been gathered). The women lay three-5 eggs for each cluster within buds. Each feminine can lay more than a hundred eggs. Some buds include 20-thirty eggs.

The feminine life time is quick (about ten times, some of which is used monotonous a tunnel to emerge from the gall). The eggs hatch in 30-40 days.

Larval advancement then proceeds pretty slowly but surely by means of the autumn and winter season. Magro et al. (2010) claimed a species of Gnomoniopsis connected with the necrosis of chestnut galls caused by D. kuriphilus in Italy. Natural enemies. Natural enemy Sort Lifestyle levels Specificity References Biological management in Organic regulate on Cynipencyrtus flavus Parasite Eudecatoma variegata Eupelmus urozonus Parasite Eurytoma brunniventris Parasite Eurytoma pistaciae Parasite Eurytoma rosae Parasite Megastigmus maculipennis Parasite China Castanea bungeana Megastigmus nipponicus Parasite Ormyrus flavitibialis Parasite Ormyrus punctiger Parasite Sycophila concinna Parasite Sycophila variegata Parasite Torymus beneficus Parasite China Japan Japan Honshu Castanea bungeana chestnuts Torymus geranii Parasite China Castanea bungeana Torymus koreanus Parasite Torymus sinensis Parasite Japan Japan Honshu Kyushu chestnuts. Means of Motion and Dispersal. Impact. Prevention and Command. Due to the variable polices all-around (de)registration of pesticides, your national checklist of registered pesticides or applicable authority should be consulted to establish which products and solutions are legally authorized for use in your state when looking at chemical command. Pesticides really should constantly be made use of in a lawful method, constant with the product’s label. Infestations in modest chestnut orchards could be minimized by pruning and destroying the infested shoots, but commercial growers can’t depend on this strategy for the reason that of the price.

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